Theory Y, the assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility and can exercise self-direction.
Many managers have limitation in the rewards they can distribute, which makes it difficult to individualize rewards.
Behavioural Theories Each reward or element of compensation/ reward has abehavioural objective and seeks to fulfill a peoples bank gifts need( physiologicalor psychological) and achieve a goal.I had input into the process used to give raises and was given a good explanation of why I received the raise I did.Job rotation is great when a job becomes no longer challenging; it allows an employee to be moved to another job usually at the same level of skill requirements.Reinforcement Theory The assumption that behavior is a function of its consequences Concepts: Behavior is environmentally caused Behavior can be modified (reinforced) by providing (controlling) consequences Reinforced behavior tends to be repeated Various Reinforcement schedules are in useContradictory to Goal-setting theory which is a cognitive.Self-Efficacy TheoryTheory asserts that motivation and performance are in partdependent on the degree to which the individual believeshe/she can accomplish the taskSelf-efficacy refers to a persons belief in his/her ability toperform a given taskThose who have high self-efficacy are more likely to try hardand exhibit.It is also important because it encourages the employee to work cooperatively with others in the organization.David McClellandsTheory of Needs / Acquired Needs Theory Need for Power The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise; the desire to control others, to influence their behavior, or to be responsible for others nPowNeed for Need.The third component within the expectancy theory of motivation is valence.From the standpoint of motivation, the theory would say that although no need is ever fully gratified, a substantially satisfied need no longer motivates.Effort, is directed toward, and consistent with, the organization's goals.(This is called the effort-performance relationship.).Moreover, some managers incorrectly assume that all employees want the same thing thus overlooking the motivational effects of differentiating rewards.These variables include the belief that a worker has the skills and ability to perform their tasks successfully, how difficult the goals are to achieve and where they fall in relation to the workers expectations, and whether there is any control over their performance.
Herzbergs two-factor theory, Vroom offered an expectancy approach to the understanding of motivation.
Vicarious Modeling Seeing someone else does the task3.
Galatea effect, occurs when high performance expectations are communicated directly to an employee.
Each level must be at least minimally satisfied before a higher levelneed occursOnly unmet needs motivateHierarchy of Needs TheoryThere is a hierarchy of five needsphysiological, safety, social, esteem and self-actualization; as each need is substantiallysatisfied, the next need becomes dominant.